Saturday May 25

## Electrical Reference

Amperage,Amps
This is a name sometimes used in place of current. It is used because the electrical current is measured in Amperes (Amps). By definition, 1 Ampere = the current that will cause silver to be deposited at a rate of 0.001118 grams per second when passed through a solution of silver nitrate. A measurement of the amount of electric current.

Biomass
Organic materials, such as wood by-products and agricultural wastes, that can be burned to produce energy or converted into a gas and used for fuel.

Atom
The smallest unit of matter. Scientists so far have found 112 different kinds of atoms. Everything in the world is made of different combinations of these atoms.

Charge
The electric charge of an object is a measure of how much electricity is there. It is similar to the mass of an object when you are dealing with gravity, but unlike mass charge can be either positive (+) or negative (-). At the atomic level charge is measured in multiples of the charge on an electron (-1), in larger cases the usual measurement is the Coulomb.

Conductor
A conductor is a material that allows electricity to move through it easily. That is, it is a material with low electrical resistance, one in which a fairly small voltage will produce a fairly large current. The opposite of an insulator. Something that allows electricity to flow through it easily. Water and most metals are good conductors. Conductors can allow electricity to flow through them because the electrons in their atoms move between atoms very easily.

Coulomb
The Coulomb is the unit normally used to measure large charges. 1 Coulomb = the amount of electricity passing a given point in 1 second at a current of 1 Ampere.

Current
The electrical current is simply a measure of how much electricity passes a given point in a fixed amount of time. It is similar to the current of a stream or river, which measures how much water passes a given point in a fixed amount of time. Electrical current is measured in Amperes (Amps). The movement or flow of electricity.

Distribution Lines
Power lines that carry electricity through towns and neighborhoods to homes and businesses. Distribution lines can run overhead or underground.

Electricity
The flow of electrons.

Electron
The basic particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom. The flow of electrons produces electricity.
Electric Field
The space near a charged BODY where other charges are affected. Similar to the gravitational field near a planet, except that it can also repel. The term is also used to describe how the field will affect other charges (which way and how much it will accelerate them).

Energy
The ability to do work. People get energy from food. Your toaster and your washing machine get their energy from electricity.

The name given to a device that shields its inside from electric fields generated by static electricity. Usually a complete conductive shell, it collects stray charges and, because like charges repel, stores them on the outside surface (where they can be further apart than on the inside). The electric fields generated by these charges then cancel each other out on the inside of the cage. Often used to protect sensitive radio equipment.

Fission
The splitting apart of an atom's nucleus, releasing a large amount of heat energy.

Fluorescent bulb
A light bulb that emits light because the gas inside it glows when it is charged by electricity.

Fuel cell
A technology that produces electricity through a chemical reaction similar to that found in a battery.

Frequency
For an alternating current, the frequency is the number of times that the current goes through a complete cycle per second. It is measured in Hertz (cycles per second).

Generator
A machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Geothermal energy
Energy that is generated by converting hot water or steam from deep beneath the Earth's surface into electricity.

Ground
The ground is an arbitrarily decided point whose voltage is taken as zero. In many situations, equipment is connected physically to the actual, dirt ground, so that voltage is taken as zero--hence the name. In England the term "earth" is used, for the same reason. To be "grounded" means to be connected to a place that is maintained at the ground voltage.

Hydroelectricity
Electricity that is generated when falling water makes a turbine spin.

Induction
Induction is the process by which charge is moved in a conductor by the presence of an electric field. In wires this will lead to a current, in discrete conducting objects it will lead to local charging--ie. the side near the inducing charge will become the opposite charge and the far side will acquire a similar charge leaving the overall charge of the object unchanged.

Incandescent bulb
A light bulb that emits light due to the glowing of a heated filament inside it.

Insulator
An insulator is a material that electricity has a hard time moving through, if it can at all. For a true insulator it takes a very high voltage to produce any current at all, and that often results in damage to the insulator. The opposite of a conductor. Something that does not allow electricity to flow through it easily. Glass and special rubber are good insulators. Insulators do not allow electricity to flow through them easily because the electrons in their atoms do not move easily from atom to atom.

Kilowatt
1,000 watts of electricity.

Kilowatt hour
One kilowatt of electricity produced or used in one hour.

Megawatt
One million watts. 1,000,000 watts of power or 1,000 kilowatts.

Natural gas
A gas used as a fuel, which is formed naturally in the earth when organic material decomposes under pressure.

Neutron
A basic particle in an atom's nucleus that has a neutral electrical charge.

Nucleus
The center of an atom. The nucleus contains tiny particles called protons and neutrons. Orbiting around the nucleus are electrons.

Ohm
The Ohm is the unit of electrical resistance.

Photovoltaic cell
A device that changes sunlight directly into electricity.

Power plant
A place where electricity is generated.

Power line
A wire used to carry electricity. Power lines are located high overhead or buried underground.

Proton
A basic particle in an atom's nucleus that has a positive electrical charge.

Resistance
Electrical resistance is a measure of how hard it is for a current to pass through a given material. It is similar to the way that it is harder for you to walk through water than air. It is usually measured in Ohms.

Static Electricity
Static electricity (or just "static") is the name used to cover those phenomena that involve charges that are not moving (much)-ie. they are static. The other form of electrical phenomena is current electricity, where the charges are moving in a large-scale, organized way.

Solar energy
Electricity produced from the sun's radiation.

Substation
A facility where transformers lower or increase electricity's voltage.

Transformer
A transformer is simple a device that transforms electricity form one voltage to another. The power coming out of the transformer cannot exceed that going in, so the output current is reduced in direct proportion to the gain in voltage. A device used to increase or decrease electricity's voltage and current.

Transmission lines
Power lines that carry high-voltage electricity long distances.
Turbine
A device used in the generation of electricity. It has a shaft with blades at one end and electromagnets at the other. Water or steam or some other energy source pushes the blades, which make the shaft and the magnets spin very fast. The magnet end is surrounded by heavy coils of copper wire, and the spinning magnets cause electrons in the wire to begin to move, creating electricity.

Utility
A company or other organization that provides a public service, such as supplying electricity, natural gas, or water.

Voltage, Volts
Voltage is a measure of the force on a unit charge at a given point in space due to all the other "local" charges. It is similar to the gravitational pull on a unit mass in space, except that, since charges can be + and -, the force can be attractive or repulsive. 1 Volt = force required to produce a current of 1 Ampere in a wire of 1 Ohm resistance. A measure of the pressure under which electricity flows.

Wattage, Watts
A measure of the amount of work done by a certain amount or amperage of electric current at a certain pressure or voltage.